Firing Technique Any method or pattern of igniting a wildland area to consume the fuel in a prescribed pattern. Dual tires are considered as single wheels. Preconnected Hard suction hose or discharge hose carried connected to pump, eliminating delay occasioned when hose and nozzles must be connected and attached at fire. Point of Attack That part of the fire on which work is started when suppression crews arrive. Line Cutter Fire crew member in the progressive method of line construction who cuts and clears away brush, small saplings, vines, and other obstructions in the path of the fireline; usually equipped with ax or brush hook, or pulaski. Panoramic Photograph Photographs from a lookout point, bearing azimuth and vertical angle scales, to assist in locating fires with a firefinder. And complex vaccines could renew the innovation engine. Extreme Fire Behavior Extreme implies a level of fire behavior characteristics that ordinarily precludes methods of direct control action. Convergence The term for horizontal air currents merging together or approaching a single point, such as at the center of a low pressure area producing a net inflow of air. Double Male Coupling A hose-coupling device having two male thread nipples for connecting hose and for connecting two female couplings of the same diameter.
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Airtanker Fixed-wing aircraft certified by FAA as being capable of transport and delivery of fire retardant solutions. Sample Part of a population; that portion of the population that is measured. Peak Monthly Average Highest monthly average of human-caused fires calculated for a protection unit. Tour-of-duty The hours of a day (a daily tour-of-duty) and the days of an administrative workweek (a weekly tour-of-duty) that constitutes an employee's regularly scheduled administrative workweek. Display Class Breakpoints In wims, the climatological breakpoints interactive strategies trade show floor plan software separating the highest staffing levels. Smoke Management The policies and practices implemented by air and natural resource managers directed at minimizing the amount of smoke entering populated areas or impacting sensitive sites, avoiding significant deterioration of air quality and violations of National Ambient Air Quality Standards, and. The intervening fuel is usually backfired; but occasionally the main fire is allowed to burn to the line, depending on conditions. The information collected is used to determine long-term trends and problem areas within the wildland fire industry. Also called extinction moisture content (EMC). The environment did not materialize into a situation where the firefighter would have been killed or injured without the use of a fire shelter; 4) Fatality - Fatality occurred in a fully or partially deployed fire shelter. Fuel Type An identifiable association of fuel elements of distinctive species, form, size, arrangement, or other characteristics that will cause a predictable rate of spread or resistance to control under specified weather conditions.
Split Drop Retardant drop made from one compartment at a time from an airtanker with a multi-compartment tank. Skid Hose Load Load of hose specially arranged on top of a standard hose load to permit dropping the working line at the fire. Maybe classified as a Type 1 or Type 2 dependent on qualifications and experience. May be single or unified command. Rising air above a heat low produces a warm upper level high and results in a net outflow of air aloft. Suppress a Fire Suppressant An agent that extinguishes the flaming and glowing phases of combustion by direct application to the burning fuel. Fire Whirl Spinning vortex column of ascending hot air and gases rising from a fire and carrying aloft smoke, debris, and flame. IMI Level 1 Interactivity This is the lowest level of courseware development. Also called composite fire interval. The natural resources of an area, such as timber, grass, watershed values, recreation values, and wildlife habitat. Wind Vectors Wind-driven Wildland Fire A wildland fire that is controlled by a strong consistent wind.
Org/wiki/Warm_front Warrant The official delegation of interactive strategies trade show floor plan software authority to contracting officers and procurement officers establishing the dollar amount and type limits for acquisitions. Terms that can specify the type of drop configuration include Salvo Drop and Trail Drop. Towering cumulus clouds which may lead to thunderstorms later in the day. Used primarily by structure firefighters. IMI products are teaching and management tools and may be used in combination or individually. Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) A restriction requested by an agency and put into effect by the Federal Aviation Administration in the vicinity of an incident which restricts the operation of nonessential aircraft in the airspace around that incident. An increase of 10 per cent in rainfall intensity, based on advice from industry representatives. Mitigation Modifying the environment or human behavior to reduce potential adverse impacts of from a natural hazard. Hose Lay Arrangement of connected lengths of fire hose and accessories on the ground, beginning at the first pumping unit and ending at the point of water delivery. A listing of the areas can be found in the National Interagency Mobilization Guide, Chapter 70 along with listings of the Geographic Coordinating Areas and Geographic Area Coordination Centers.
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First Order Fire Effects (fofe) The effects that concern the direct or immediate consequences of fire, such as biomass consumption, crown scorch, bole damage, and smoke production. Flanking Fire Suppression Attacking a fire by working along the flanks either simultaneously or successively from a less active or anchor point and endeavoring to connect two lines at the head. A normal shift could be up to 16 hours long and may cross calendar days. The personnel responsible for fire suppression within a specified area. Fuel Depth The average distance from the bottom of the litter layer to the top of the layer of fuel, usually the surface fuel. Limited Containment Halting of fire spread at the head, or that portion of the flanks of a prescribed fire that is threatening to exceed prescription criteria, and ensuring that this spread rate will not be encountered again; does not indicate mopup. Surface Area-to-Volume Ratio The ratio between the surface area of an object, such as a fuel particle, to its volume. Operational Period The period of time scheduled for execution of a given set of tactical actions as specified in the Incident Action Plan. Operating Weight For helicopters, the equipped weight plus weight of the crew and fuel.
Check-in locations include incident command post (ICP base or camps, staging areas, helibases, or direct to a tactical assignment. Contingency actions are required to be taken when the result exceeds its intent. Unified Area Command A unified area command is established when incidents under an area command are multijurisdictional. Requirements include running, walking, climbing, jumping, twisting, bending, and lifting more than 50 pounds; the pace of work typically is set by the emergency condition." Moderate: "Duties involve field work requiring complete control of all physical faculties and may include considerable. Learning Content Management System (lcms) Any system that interactive strategies trade show floor plan software keeps learner information, can launch and communicate with SCOs, and can interpret instructions that tell it which SCO comes next. Air Pollution The general term referring to the undesirable addition of substances (gases, liquids, or solid particles) to the atmosphere that are foreign to the natural atmosphere or are present in quantities exceeding natural concentrations. Also called dry storm. It is generally specified whether the"d hover ceiling refers to hovering in ground effect (hige) or hovering out of ground effect (hoge).
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Conflagration Threat Likelihood that a wildfire capable of causing considerable damage will occur. Report Time Elapsed time from fire discovery until the first personnel charged with initiating action for fire suppression are notified of its existence and location. During both riverine and regional floods, areas which normally experience local flooding are also likely to experience higher flood levels compared to those recorded in the main drainage paths such as creeks, canals, lakes and rivers. Resource Value-at-risk Fire suppression planning tool providing a relative expression (in five classes) of fire effects on all resources (not the value of the resources themselves). Fire whirls range in size from less than one foot to over 500 feet in diameter.
That is, air currents moving from west to east around the earth flow around three sides of the trough then turn eastward rather than toward the west, as in the case of a closed circulation. Automatic Direction Finder (ADF) An aircraft radio navigational receiver operating in the low frequency bands. The general term used to describe the maximum overnight value of atmospheric relative humidity. ESF Coordinator An entity which oversees the preparedness activities for a particular ESF and coordinates with its primary and support agencies. There is only one base per incident. The Insurance Council of Australia has produced a brochure 'Flood Insurance: Are You Covered?' that can be downloaded form their website. Some incident management teams have placed this unit under safety. It may be determined by water drop penetration time, equilibrium liquid-contact angles, interactive strategies trade show floor plan software solid-air surface tension indices, or the characterization of dynamic wetting angles during infiltration. Fuel Dryness Level (DL) A quantitative measure of fuel moisture and receptability to ignition as determined by an accepted Fire Danger Rating System index that influences fire growth, intensity, or activity. Heliport A permanent facility for the operation of helicopters which has been built to FAA standards and which is marked on aeronautical charts. As a cold front passes, winds shift rapidly to west, then northwest.
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Org/wiki/Backing_wind Backpack Pump A portable sprayer with hand-pump, fed from a liquid filled container fitted with straps, used mainly in fire and pest control. These processes may include low level convergence, heating or thermal convection, orographic lifting over the mountains, and frontal lifting. Spot Weather Forecast A special forecast issued to fit the time, topography, and weather of a specific incident. Duff The layer of decomposing organic materials lying below the litter layer of freshly fallen twigs, needles, and leaves and immediately above the mineral soil. Prescribed Burning Application of prescribed fire. Closure An administrative action limiting or prohibiting access to a specific geographic or jurisdictional area for the purposes of reducing wildfire or the risk it poses to life, property, and/or resources. May be of different types such as engines, water tenders, ladder trucks, etc. Branch The organizational level having functional or geographical responsibility for major parts of incident operations. Standards typically include training, experience, and physical fitness. Rate of Spread Meter A device that computes the probable rate of spread of a fire for different combinations of fuel moisture, wind speed, and other selected factors. Fuel Size Class A category used to describe the diameter of down dead woody fuels.
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Creeping Fire Fire burning with a low flame and spreading slowly. Also known as Holding Forces. Greenness Factor In the 1988 version of nfdrs, a code scaled from 0 to 20 representing the greenness of grasses and shrubs from near dead to maximum greenness. McKinsey Quarterly, want a better decision? Designated Flood Level is a reflection of the impact of a rainfall with 1 per cent probability of occurrence in any year for most areas of the city. "Total suspended particulates as used in air quality, are those particles suspended in or falling through the atmosphere. Also called: flanking fire. One-thousand Hour Timelag Fuels Dead fuels consisting of roundwood 3-8 inches in diameter and the layer of the forest floor more than about 4 inches below the surface. Absence of marine air in coastal areas may lead to more severe fire danger. Fire Weather Index (FWI) A numerical rating in the Canadian fire danger rating system, based on meteorological measurements of fire intensity in a standard fuel type. Fire-flood Cycle The greatly increased rate of water run off and soil movement from steep slopes that may follow removal of the vegetative cover by burning.
Move Up Method Progressive method of fireline construction on a wildfire without changing relative positions in the line. One of the six component activities in an adaptive management process that may lead to adjusting future actions. Shock Wave The leading edge of an expanding air mass. Flame A mass of gas undergoing rapid combustion, generally accompanied by evolution of sensible heat and incandescence. Standard Coupling Fire hose coupling with American National Standard (NH) threads. Fuel Management Act or practice of controlling flammability and reducing resistance to control of wildland fuels through mechanical, chemical, biological, or manual means, or by fire, in support of land management objectives. May 2019 Decision makers fed up with slow or subpar results take heart. Burnover An event in which a fire moves through a location or overtakes personnel or equipment where there is no opportunity to utilize escape routes and safety zones, often resulting in personal injury or equipment damage. National Parks and Wilderness Areas meeting certain criteria are "Class I" or "clean area" in that they have the smallest allowable increment of degradation.